Difference Between Spring Data JPA and JDBC?

1. Introduction

Spring Data JPA and JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) are both used in Java for database operations, but they serve different purposes and have different approaches. Spring Data JPA is part of the larger Spring Data family that makes it easier to implement JPA-based data access layers. JDBC is a lower-level Java API for executing SQL statements and managing database connections.

2. Key Points

1. Spring Data JPA abstracts the data access layer, making it easier to write, maintain, and read.

2. JDBC offers a more granular level of control over database interactions but requires more boilerplate code.

3. Spring Data JPA simplifies the implementation of data access layers by reducing the amount of boilerplate code required.

4. JDBC is more flexible in terms of database operations but needs manual handling of transaction management, connection pooling, etc.

3. Differences

Spring Data JPA JDBC
Provides an abstraction layer on top of JPA. Direct API for SQL operations and database interactions.
Automates and simplifies data access layer implementation. Requires writing and managing SQL queries and connections manually.
Focuses on reducing boilerplate code and increasing development efficiency. Offers a high degree of control and flexibility over database operations.

4. Example

// Spring Data JPA example
public interface UserRepository extends JpaRepository<User, Long> {
    List<User> findByName(String name);

// JDBC example
public class UserDao {
    private JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate;

    public User findById(Long id) {
        String sql = "SELECT * FROM user WHERE id = ?";
        return jdbcTemplate.queryForObject(sql, new Object[]{id}, new BeanPropertyRowMapper<>(User.class));


// The output would be the result of database operations, such as retrieving a list of users or a specific user, which does not directly display in the application.


1. The Spring Data JPA example uses a repository interface that extends JpaRepository, automatically providing a range of standard methods for data access.

2. The JDBC example involves writing a DAO class with SQL queries and using JdbcTemplate to execute these queries.

5. When to use?

- Use Spring Data JPA when you want to avoid boilerplate code and quickly implement your data access layer with standard CRUD operations and queries.

- Use JDBC when you need finer control over your SQL queries and database transactions, or when working with legacy systems that already use JDBC.