@DataJpaTest Spring Boot Example

In this tutorial, we will learn how to use Spring boot provided @DataJpaTest annotation to test Repository layer components.

We use Spring boot starter test dependency to write JUnit tests for Repository layer components:
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>

@DataJpaTest Annotation Overview

Spring Boot provides the @DataJpaTest annotation to test the persistence layer components that will autoconfigure in-memory embedded database for testing purposes.

The @DataJpaTest annotation doesn’t load other Spring beans (@Components, @Controller, @Service, and annotated beans) into ApplicationContext. By default, it scans for @Entity classes and configures Spring Data JPA repositories annotated with @Repository annotation.

By default, tests annotated with @DataJpaTest are transactional and roll back at the end of each test.

Spring boot provided @DataJpaTest annotation is not only to test Spring Data JPA repositories but it also supports to test JPA-related components.

For example:


@DataJpaTest Spring Boot Example

Create Spring Boot Application

Using spring initialize, create a Spring Boot project and add the following dependencies:
  • Spring Data JPA
  • Lombok
  • H2 Driver
Generate the Spring boot project as a zip file, extract it, and import it into IntelliJ IDEA.

Make sure that you have the below dependencies added to your pom.xml file:
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>com.h2database</groupId>
			<artifactId>h2</artifactId>
			<scope>runtime</scope>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
			<artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
			<optional>true</optional>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>

Create JPA Entity

Next, let's create a Student JPA entity: 
package net.javaguides.spirngboot.entity;

import lombok.*;

import javax.persistence.*;

@Setter
@Getter
@Builder
@AllArgsConstructor
@NoArgsConstructor
@Entity
@Table(name = "students")
public class Student {

    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private long id;

    @Column(name = "first_name")
    private String firstName;

    @Column(name = "last_name")
    private String lastName;
    private String email;
}

Create Spring Data JPA Repository

Let's create StudentRepository which extends the JpaRepository interface:
package net.javaguides.spirngboot.repository;

import net.javaguides.spirngboot.entity.Student;
import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;

public interface StudentRepository extends JpaRepository<Student, Long> {
}

JUnit Tests for Data Access or Repository Layer with H2 database

Let's create StudentRepositoryTests class and add the following content to it:
package net.javaguides.spirngboot.repository;

import net.javaguides.spirngboot.AbstractContainerBaseTest;
import net.javaguides.spirngboot.entity.Student;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.DataJpaTest;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.*;

@DataJpaTest
class StudentRepositoryTest {

    @Autowired
    private StudentRepository studentRepository;

    // JUnit for save student operation - BDD style
    @Test
    public void givenStudentObject_whenSave_thenReturnSavedStudent(){

        // given - setup or precondition
        Student student = Student.builder().firstName("Ramesh")
                .lastName("fadatare").email("ramesh@gmail.com").build();

        // when - action or the testing
        Student savedStudent = studentRepository.save(student);

        // then - very output
        Assertions.assertNotNull(savedStudent);
        Assertions.assertNotNull(savedStudent.getId());

    }

    // JUnit for findById student operation - BDD style
    @Test
    public void givenStudentId_whenfindbyId_thenReturnSavedStudent(){

        // given - setup or precondition
        Student student = Student.builder().firstName("Ramesh")
                .lastName("fadatare").email("ramesh@gmail.com").build();
        Student savedStudent = studentRepository.save(student);

        // when - action or the testing
        Student studentDB = studentRepository.findById(student.getId()).get();

        // then - very output
        Assertions.assertNotNull(studentDB);
    }

}
Spring Boot provides the @DataJpaTest annotation to test the persistence layer components that will autoconfigure in-memory embedded database for testing purposes. In this example, we are using an H2 in-memory database for testing purposes.

Run JUnit tests


Conclusion

In this tutorial, we have learned how to use Spring boot provided @DataJpaTest annotation to test Repository layer components.

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