Spring Data JPA One to Many Bidirectional Mapping

In the previous tutorial, we implemented one-to-many domain model unidirectional mapping using Spring Data JPA (Hibernate as JPA provider).

In this tutorial, we will learn how to perform one-to-many domain model Bidirectional mapping using Spring Data JPA (Hibernate as JPA provider).

We will take Order and OrderItems entities to implement one-to-many Bidirectional mapping. The Order entity has a one-to-many association to the OrderItems entity, and the OrderItems entity has a many-to-one relationship to the Order entity.

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In One to Many Bidirectional Mapping, we use JPA @OneToMany and @ManyToOne annotations for mapping with a database table.

In a relational database system, a one-to-many association links two tables based on a Foreign Key column so that the child table record references the Primary Key of the parent table row.

1. Creating Spring Boot Project

Spring Boot provides a web tool called https://start.spring.io to bootstrap an application quickly. Just go to https://start.spring.io and generate a new spring boot project.

Use the below details in the Spring boot creation:

Project Name: spring-data-jpa-course

Project Type: Maven

Choose dependencies:  Spring Data JPA, MySQL Driver, Lombok

Package name: net.javaguides.springboot

2. Maven Dependencies

Here is the complete pom.xml for your reference:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<parent>
		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
		<version>2.6.1</version>
		<relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
	</parent>
	<groupId>net.javaguides</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-data-jpa-course</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<name>spring-data-jpa-course</name>
	<description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>
	<properties>
		<java.version>11</java.version>
	</properties>
	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>mysql</groupId>
			<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
			<scope>runtime</scope>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>

	<build>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
				<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>

</project>

3. Configure MySQL database

Let's use the MySQL database to store and retrieve the data in this example and we gonna use Hibernate properties to create and drop tables.

Open the application.properties file and add the following configuration to it:
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/demo?useSSL=false
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=Mysql@123

spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect = org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto = create-drop
Make sure that you will create a demo database before running the Spring boot application.
Also, change the MySQL username and password as per your MySQL installation on your machine.

4. Create JPA Entities

Let's create a entity package inside a base package "net.javaguides.springboot".

Within the entity package, create an Order and OrderItems classes with the following content:

Order.java

package net.javaguides.springdatajpacourse.entity;

import org.hibernate.annotations.CreationTimestamp;
import org.hibernate.annotations.UpdateTimestamp;

import javax.persistence.*;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Set;

@Entity
@Table(name="orders")
public class Order {

    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    @Column(name="id")
    private Long id;

    @Column(name="order_tracking_number")
    private String orderTrackingNumber;

    @Column(name="total_quantity")
    private int totalQuantity;

    @Column(name="total_price")
    private BigDecimal totalPrice;

    @Column(name="status")
    private String status;

    @Column(name="date_created")
    @CreationTimestamp
    private Date dateCreated;

    @Column(name="last_updated")
    @UpdateTimestamp
    private Date lastUpdated;

    @OneToMany(cascade = CascadeType.ALL, fetch = FetchType.EAGER, mappedBy = "order")
    private Set<OrderItem> orderItems = new HashSet<>();

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getOrderTrackingNumber() {
        return orderTrackingNumber;
    }

    public void setOrderTrackingNumber(String orderTrackingNumber) {
        this.orderTrackingNumber = orderTrackingNumber;
    }

    public int getTotalQuantity() {
        return totalQuantity;
    }

    public void setTotalQuantity(int totalQuantity) {
        this.totalQuantity = totalQuantity;
    }

    public BigDecimal getTotalPrice() {
        return totalPrice;
    }

    public void setTotalPrice(BigDecimal totalPrice) {
        this.totalPrice = totalPrice;
    }

    public String getStatus() {
        return status;
    }

    public void setStatus(String status) {
        this.status = status;
    }

    public Date getDateCreated() {
        return dateCreated;
    }

    public void setDateCreated(Date dateCreated) {
        this.dateCreated = dateCreated;
    }

    public Date getLastUpdated() {
        return lastUpdated;
    }

    public void setLastUpdated(Date lastUpdated) {
        this.lastUpdated = lastUpdated;
    }

    public Set<OrderItem> getOrderItems() {
        return orderItems;
    }

    public void setOrderItems(Set<OrderItem> orderItems) {
        this.orderItems = orderItems;
    }

    public void add(OrderItem item) {

        if (item != null) {
            if (orderItems == null) {
                orderItems = new HashSet<>();
            }

            orderItems.add(item);
           // item.setOrder(this);
        }
    }

    public BigDecimal getTotalAmount()
	{
		BigDecimal amount = new BigDecimal("0.0");
		for (OrderItem item : this.orderItems)
		{
			amount = amount.add(item.getPrice());
		}
		return amount;
	}


    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "Order{" +
                "id=" + id +
                ", orderTrackingNumber='" + orderTrackingNumber + '\'' +
                ", totalQuantity=" + totalQuantity +
                ", totalPrice=" + totalPrice +
                ", status='" + status + '\'' +
                ", dateCreated=" + dateCreated +
                ", lastUpdated=" + lastUpdated +
                '}';
    }
}

OrderItems.java

package net.javaguides.springdatajpacourse.entity;

import javax.persistence.*;
import java.math.BigDecimal;

@Entity
@Table(name="order_items",schema = "ecommerce")
public class OrderItem {

    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    @Column(name="id")
    private Long id;

    @Column(name="image_url")
    private String imageUrl;

    @Column(name = "price")
    private BigDecimal price;

    @Column(name="quantity")
    private int quantity;

    @OneToOne
    @JoinColumn(name="product_id")
    private Product product;

 // default fetch type for ManyToOne: EAGER
    @ManyToOne(fetch = FetchType.LAZY)
    @JoinColumn(name = "order_id")
    private Order order;

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getImageUrl() {
        return imageUrl;
    }

    public void setImageUrl(String imageUrl) {
        this.imageUrl = imageUrl;
    }

    public BigDecimal getPrice() {
        return this.price;
    }

    public void setPrice(BigDecimal price) {
        this.price = price;
    }

    public int getQuantity() {
        return quantity;
    }

    public void setQuantity(int quantity) {
        this.quantity = quantity;
    }

    public Product getProduct() {
        return product;
    }

    public void setProduct(Product product) {
        this.product = product;
    }

    public Order getOrder() {
        return order;
    }

    public void setOrder(Order order) {
        this.order = order;
    }
}

5. Create Spring Data JPA Repositories

The next thing we’re gonna do is to create repositories to access the Order entity from the database.

The JpaRepository interface defines methods for all the CRUD operations on the entity, and a default implementation of the JpaRepository called SimpleJpaRepository.

Let's create a repository package inside a base package "net.javaguides.springdatarest".

Within the repository package, create an OrderRepository interface with the following content:

OrderRepository.java

package net.javaguides.springdatajpacourse.repository;

import net.javaguides.springdatajpacourse.entity.Order;
import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;

public interface OrderRepository extends JpaRepository<Order, Long>{
	Order findByOrderTrackingNumber(String orderTrackingNumber);
}

6. Testing One to Many Unidirectional Mapping

Let's write the JUnit test to perform CRUD operations on one-to-many unidirectional mapping using Spring Data JPA:

package net.javaguides.springdatajpacourse.repository;

import net.javaguides.springdatajpacourse.entity.Order;
import net.javaguides.springdatajpacourse.entity.OrderItem;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

import java.util.List;

@SpringBootTest
public class OneToManyUnidirectionalMappingTest {

    @Autowired
    private OrderRepository orderRepository;

    @Test
    void testSaveOrder(){

        // create Order object
        Order order = new Order();

        OrderItem orderItem = new OrderItem();
        orderItem.setImageUrl("image_url.png");
        orderItem.setPrice(new BigDecimal(100));
        // add orderitem to order
        order.add(orderItem);

        OrderItem orderItem2 = new OrderItem();
        orderItem2.setImageUrl("image_url.png");
        orderItem2.setPrice(new BigDecimal(200));
        // add orderItem2 to order
        order.add(orderItem2);

        order.setOrderTrackingNumber("1000");
        order.setStatus("IN PROGRESS");
        // total amount of the order
        order.setTotalPrice(order.getTotalAmount());

        // Quantity of the order items
        order.setTotalQuantity(2);

        orderRepository.save(order);

    }

    @Test
    void testUpdateOrder(){
        Order order = orderRepository.findById(1L).get();
        order.setStatus("DELIVERED");
        orderRepository.save(order);
    }

    @Test
    void testGetAllOrders(){

        List<Order> orders = orderRepository.findAll();

        orders.forEach((o) -> {

            System.out.println("order id :: " + o.getId());

            o.getOrderItems().forEach((orderItem -> {
                System.out.println("orderItem :: " + orderItem.getId());
            }));
        });
    }

    @Test
    void testFindByOrderTrackingNumber(){

        Order order = orderRepository.findByOrderTrackingNumber("1000");

        // add fetch type as EAGER
//        order.getOrderItems().forEach((o) -> {
//            System.out.println(o.getId());
//        });
    }

    @Test
    void testDeleteOrder(){

        orderRepository.deleteById(1L);
    }
}

Save Order will also save associated order items:

    @Test
    void testSaveOrder(){

        // create Order object
        Order order = new Order();

        OrderItem orderItem = new OrderItem();
        orderItem.setImageUrl("image_url.png");
        orderItem.setPrice(new BigDecimal(100));
        // add orderitem to order
        order.add(orderItem);

        OrderItem orderItem2 = new OrderItem();
        orderItem2.setImageUrl("image_url.png");
        orderItem2.setPrice(new BigDecimal(200));
        // add orderItem2 to order
        order.add(orderItem2);

        order.setOrderTrackingNumber("1000");
        order.setStatus("IN PROGRESS");
        // total amount of the order
        order.setTotalPrice(order.getTotalAmount());

        // Quantity of the order items
        order.setTotalQuantity(2);

        orderRepository.save(order);

    }

Update Order Operation

    @Test
    void testUpdateOrder(){
        Order order = orderRepository.findById(1L).get();
        order.setStatus("DELIVERED");
        orderRepository.save(order);
    }

Get All Orders will also get its associated order items:

    @Test
    void testGetAllOrders(){

        List<Order> orders = orderRepository.findAll();

        orders.forEach((o) -> {

            System.out.println("order id :: " + o.getId());

            o.getOrderItems().forEach((orderItem -> {
                System.out.println("orderItem :: " + orderItem.getId());
            }));
        });
    }

Delete Order will also delete its associated order items:

    @Test
    void testDeleteOrder(){

        orderRepository.deleteById(1L);
    }

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