Abstract Factory Design Pattern in Kotlin

1. Definition

The Abstract Factory Design Pattern provides an interface for creating families of related or dependent objects without specifying their concrete classes.

2. Problem Statement

Imagine you're building a GUI library where you want to support different themes, such as "Dark" and "Light". Each theme has different styles for buttons, windows, and scrollbars. Implementing this without a design pattern can lead to cluttered code, making it hard to add new themes or UI components.

3. Solution

Use the Abstract Factory pattern to define a factory for each theme. Each factory creates UI components consistent with that theme. This way, adding a new theme or UI component becomes cleaner and more maintainable.

4. Real-World Use Cases

1. Cross-platform UI libraries where each platform has a distinct look and feel.

2. Configurable software suites that offer different sets of features.

5. Implementation Steps

1. Define abstract product interfaces for different types of UI components (e.g., Button, Window).

2. Define concrete product classes for each product type and theme.

3. Define an abstract factory interface that declares creation methods for each product type.

4. Implement concrete factories for each theme that produce theme-specific UI components.

6. Implementation in Kotlin Programming

// Abstract product interfaces
interface Button {
    fun display(): String
interface Window {
    fun display(): String
// Concrete products for Light theme
class LightButton : Button {
    override fun display() = "Displaying Light Theme Button"
class LightWindow : Window {
    override fun display() = "Displaying Light Theme Window"
// Concrete products for Dark theme
class DarkButton : Button {
    override fun display() = "Displaying Dark Theme Button"
class DarkWindow : Window {
    override fun display() = "Displaying Dark Theme Window"
// Abstract Factory
interface GUIFactory {
    fun createButton(): Button
    fun createWindow(): Window
// Concrete factories
class LightThemeFactory : GUIFactory {
    override fun createButton() = LightButton()
    override fun createWindow() = LightWindow()
class DarkThemeFactory : GUIFactory {
    override fun createButton() = DarkButton()
    override fun createWindow() = DarkWindow()
fun main() {
    // Client code using the Abstract Factory
    val lightFactory: GUIFactory = LightThemeFactory()
    val lightButton: Button = lightFactory.createButton()
    val lightWindow: Window = lightFactory.createWindow()
    val darkFactory: GUIFactory = DarkThemeFactory()
    val darkButton: Button = darkFactory.createButton()
    val darkWindow: Window = darkFactory.createWindow()


Displaying Light Theme Button
Displaying Light Theme Window
Displaying Dark Theme Button
Displaying Dark Theme Window


1. Button and Window are abstract product interfaces representing UI components.

2. LightButton, LightWindow, DarkButton, and DarkWindow are concrete implementations of these products, tailored for specific themes.

3. GUIFactory is the Abstract Factory interface which declares methods for creating products.

4. LightThemeFactory and DarkThemeFactory are concrete factories that instantiate theme-specific UI components.

5. The client code (main function) uses an abstract factory to create UI components, ensuring they match the chosen theme.

7. When to use?

The Abstract Factory pattern is useful when:

1. The system needs to be independent of how its objects are created, composed, and represented.

2. The system is configured with one of multiple families of products.

3. The products of a family are designed to work together, and you want to enforce this constraint.

4. You want to provide a library of products and expose only their interfaces, not their implementations.