Unsatisfied Dependency in Spring Boot

When working with the Spring framework, especially with Spring Boot, you may sometimes run into an error that looks something like this:

org.springframework.beans.factory.UnsatisfiedDependencyException: Error creating bean with name 'someBean': Unsatisfied dependency expressed 
through constructor argument with index 0 of type [com.example.SomeClass]: No qualifying bean of type [com.example.SomeClass] is defined: 
expected single matching bean but found none

This error is thrown when Spring's Inversion of Control (IoC) container cannot resolve a dependency required to create a bean. Let's dive into why this happens and how to fix it.


Missing Annotations: The required bean may not be marked as a Spring component (@Component, @Service, @Repository, @Controller, etc.). 

Component Scan Issues: Spring might not be scanning the package where your component is located. This can be due to misconfiguration or oversight. 

Multiple Beans: Sometimes, there might be multiple beans of the desired type, and Spring cannot decide which one to inject. 

Profile-specific Beans: The bean to be injected might be annotated with a specific profile, and that profile might not be active. 

Other Configuration Errors: XML-based configurations or Java-based configurations might have errors, or they might not be picked up by Spring at all.


Add Missing Annotations

Make sure that you annotated a class with respective Spring annotation to make that class a Spring bean.

  • @Component: This is a generic stereotype annotation to indicate that a class is a Spring component.  
  • @Service: This denotes a class as a service layer, and it's a specialization of the @Component annotation.
  • @Repository: This is used on classes that directly access the database. 
  • @Controller: Used with classes that act as web controllers in a Spring MVC application. 
  • @RestController: This is a combination of @Controller and @ResponseBody and is commonly used for creating RESTful web services in Spring Boot applications.

For example: If a required bean is missing an annotation, it won't be registered in the Spring context. Here's how to fix it: Let's say you have a class SomeService which is supposed to be a Spring-managed bean, but you forgot to annotate it:

public class SomeService {
    // ... class content ...

To allow Spring to manage this class as a bean and inject it wherever needed, you should annotate it with the appropriate annotation:

public class SomeService {
    // ... class content ...

Now, Spring will recognize SomeService as a managed bean, and it will be eligible for auto-wiring wherever it's needed.

Fix Component Scanning

If using @SpringBootApplication in Spring Boot, by default, it will scan all sub-packages of the package where it's located. Make sure your main application class is in a root package above other classes. Alternatively, you can specify the packages to scan using the @ComponentScan annotation:

@ComponentScan(basePackages = "com.example")
public class MyApplication {
    // ...

Qualify Your Beans

If multiple beans of the same type exist, use the @Qualifier annotation to specify which bean to inject:

public SomeService(@Qualifier("specificBeanName") SomeClass someClass) {
    // ...

Check Profiles

If the bean definition is bound to a specific profile using the @Profile annotation, ensure that the profile is active. 

Review Configuration

Examine XML-based or Java-based configurations for errors. Also, ensure they are located in a package scanned by Spring or explicitly imported. 


The UnsatisfiedDependencyException error essentially means that Spring couldn't find a matching bean for the given dependency. By carefully inspecting your configuration and understanding the cause, you can usually resolve this error quite quickly.