JPA @Transient Annotation

In this blog post, we will explore the JPA @Transient annotation and its various use cases in JPA entities.

Jakarta Persistence API (JPA) is a powerful technology that facilitates the seamless mapping of Java objects to relational databases. However, not all fields in an entity class need to be persisted in the database. For this purpose, JPA provides the @Transient annotation, allowing developers to specify fields that should not be stored in the database.

@Transient Annotation Overview

The @Transient annotation is used to mark fields in an entity class that should not be persisted in the database. When an entity is persisted, JPA will ignore any field annotated with @Transient, ensuring that these fields do not affect the database schema or table. 

@Transient Annotation Example

Consider the following Product entity class:

public class Product {
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long id;

    private String name;

    private double price;

    private boolean discounted;

    // Constructors, getters, setters, etc.

In this example, the discounted field is marked with the @Transient annotation. This field is not required to be stored in the database because it can be calculated on the fly based on other persistent fields (e.g., applying business logic or querying external services). Therefore, JPA will ignore the discounted field during entity persistence.

Here is one more example: Consider the following Student entity class:

public class Student {
    private Long id;
    @Column(name="student_name", length=50, nullable=false)
    private String name;
    private Integer age;
    // other fields, getters and setters
In the above example, we annotated the field age with the @Transient annotation so the field age will not be persisted in the database table.

Use Cases for @Transient

Derived or Computed Fields: Often, there are fields that can be calculated or derived from other persistent fields. Such fields are excellent candidates for the @Transient annotation since they do not need to be stored in the database, saving storage space and simplifying the data model. 

Non-Persistent Data: Some fields might temporarily hold data during the application's execution that does not require database persistence. Such fields can be marked as @Transient to avoid unnecessary database writes. 

Intermediate Processing Fields: Fields used for intermediate processing or temporary storage within the application logic are often transient in nature. The @Transient annotation helps in separating these fields from the persistent ones.

Caveats and Considerations

Serialization: Fields marked with @Transient are also not serialized by default. If you want to include them during serialization, you must explicitly handle serialization using custom methods or frameworks like Jackson. 

Access Control: Fields marked as @Transient must be appropriately managed to ensure that sensitive or important data is not inadvertently excluded from persistence or serialization. 


The @Transient annotation in JPA is a powerful tool for handling non-persistent fields in entity classes. By using this annotation judiciously, developers can control which fields should not be stored in the database, thereby optimizing storage space and maintaining a clean data model. 

Understanding when and where to use @Transient allows developers to fully leverage the capabilities of JPA while keeping the database schema organized and efficient.