JSP Servlet Tutorial - Project Development Example in Eclipse

In this JSP Servlet tutorial, you will learn how to build a step-by-step Todo Management web application using JSP, Servlet, JDBC, and MySQL database.

Learn and master JSP at https://www.javaguides.net/p/jsp-tutorial.html.

Learn and master Servlet at https://www.javaguides.net/p/servlet-tutorial.html

Learn and master JDBC at https://www.javaguides.net/p/jdbc-tutorial.html

Learn and master Hibernate at https://www.javaguides.net/p/hibernate-tutorial.html

Tools and technologies used

  • JSP - 2.2 +
  • IDE - STS/Eclipse Neon.3
  • JDK - 1.8 or later
  • Apache Tomcat - 8.5
  • JSTL - 1.2.1
  • Servlet API - 2.5 
  • MySQL - mysql-connector-java-8.0.13.jar

Features Implementation

  • Develop User registration module implementation
  • Develop a Login module implementation
  • Develop a Todo CRUD operations implementation

What we will build?

We build a Todo web application using JSP, Servlet, JDBC, and the MySQL database.
Below are the screenshots that show the UI of our Todo App:

User Registration Page


Login Page

Add New Todo Page


Update Todo Page



List Todo Page

Delete Todo Page

MySQL Database Setup

Let's create a database named "demo" in MySQL and then execute below DDL SQL script:
CREATE TABLE `users` (
  `id` int(3) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,,
  `first_name` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `last_name` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `username` varchar(250) DEFAULT NULL,
  `password` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4 COLLATE=utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci;

CREATE TABLE `todos` (
  `id` bigint(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `description` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,
  `is_done` bit(1) NOT NULL,
  `target_date` datetime(6) DEFAULT NULL,
  `username` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,
  `title` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=8 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4 COLLATE=utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci;

Create Dynamic Project in Eclipse

Create a dynamic project in eclipse step by step at Creating a Dynamic Web Project in Eclipse

Project Structure

Once you create a dynamic project then refer to the below screenshot to create a project structure for the Todo app:

1. User Registration Module

Let's first build the User Registration module and then the Login module and finally CRUD operations for the Todo entity. 

1. Create a JavaBean - User.java

Let's create a User JavaBean class which we will use in JSP action tags.
Create a User.java class and add the following content to it:
package net.javaguides.todoapp.model;

import java.io.Serializable;

/**
 * JavaBean class used in jsp action tags.
 * @author Ramesh Fadatare
 */
public class User implements Serializable {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1 L;
    private String firstName;
    private String lastName;
    private String username;
    private String password;
    public String getFirstName() {
        return firstName;
    }
    public void setFirstName(String firstName) {
        this.firstName = firstName;
    }
    public String getLastName() {
        return lastName;
    }
    public void setLastName(String lastName) {
        this.lastName = lastName;
    }
    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }
    public void setUsername(String username) {
        this.username = username;
    }
    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }
    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;
    }
}

2. Configure JDBC Connection- JDBCUtils.java

Let's create JDBCUtils.java class which contains all JDBC common code.
package net.javaguides.todoapp.utils;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.Date;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.time.LocalDate;

public class JDBCUtils {

    private static String jdbcURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/demo";
    private static String jdbcUsername = "root";
    private static String jdbcPassword = "root";

    public static Connection getConnection() {
        Connection connection = null;
        try {
            Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.Driver");
            connection = DriverManager.getConnection(jdbcURL, jdbcUsername, jdbcPassword);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            // TODO Auto-generated catch block
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
            // TODO Auto-generated catch block
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return connection;
    }

    public static void printSQLException(SQLException ex) {
        for (Throwable e: ex) {
            if (e instanceof SQLException) {
                e.printStackTrace(System.err);
                System.err.println("SQLState: " + ((SQLException) e).getSQLState());
                System.err.println("Error Code: " + ((SQLException) e).getErrorCode());
                System.err.println("Message: " + e.getMessage());
                Throwable t = ex.getCause();
                while (t != null) {
                    System.out.println("Cause: " + t);
                    t = t.getCause();
                }
            }
        }
    }

    public static Date getSQLDate(LocalDate date) {
        return java.sql.Date.valueOf(date);
    }

    public static LocalDate getUtilDate(Date sqlDate) {
        return sqlDate.toLocalDate();
    }
}
Note that we need to provide your MySQL database credentials in the above file.

3. DAO Layer - UserDao.java

Let's create a UserDao class that contains JDBC code to store User registered data into the users table. Add the following code to an UserDao class:
package net.javaguides.todoapp.dao;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.PreparedStatement;
import java.sql.SQLException;

import net.javaguides.todoapp.model.User;
import net.javaguides.todoapp.utils.JDBCUtils;

public class UserDao {

    public int registerEmployee(User employee) throws ClassNotFoundException {
        String INSERT_USERS_SQL = "INSERT INTO users" +
            "  (first_name, last_name, username, password) VALUES " +
            " (?, ?, ?, ?);";

        int result = 0;
        try (Connection connection = JDBCUtils.getConnection();
            // Step 2:Create a statement using connection object
            PreparedStatement preparedStatement = connection.prepareStatement(INSERT_USERS_SQL)) {
            preparedStatement.setString(1, employee.getFirstName());
            preparedStatement.setString(2, employee.getLastName());
            preparedStatement.setString(3, employee.getUsername());
            preparedStatement.setString(4, employee.getPassword());

            System.out.println(preparedStatement);
            // Step 3: Execute the query or update query
            result = preparedStatement.executeUpdate();

        } catch (SQLException e) {
            // process sql exception
            JDBCUtils.printSQLException(e);
        }
        return result;
    }
}

4. Controller Layer - UserController.java

Let's create an UserController class to process HTTP request parameters and redirect to the appropriate JSP page after request data stored in the database:
package net.javaguides.todoapp.web;

import java.io.IOException;

import javax.servlet.RequestDispatcher;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import net.javaguides.todoapp.dao.UserDao;
import net.javaguides.todoapp.model.User;

/**
 * @email Ramesh Fadatare
 */

@WebServlet("/register")
public class UserController extends HttpServlet {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1 L;
    private UserDao userDao;

    public void init() {
        userDao = new UserDao();
    }

    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws ServletException, IOException {
        register(request, response);
    }

    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws ServletException, IOException {
        response.sendRedirect("register/register.jsp");
    }

    private void register(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException, ServletException {
        String firstName = request.getParameter("firstName");
        String lastName = request.getParameter("lastName");
        String username = request.getParameter("username");
        String password = request.getParameter("password");

        User employee = new User();
        employee.setFirstName(firstName);
        employee.setLastName(lastName);
        employee.setUsername(username);
        employee.setPassword(password);

        try {
            int result = userDao.registerEmployee(employee);
            if (result == 1) {
                request.setAttribute("NOTIFICATION", "User Registered Successfully!");
            }

        } catch (Exception e) {
            // TODO Auto-generated catch block
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        RequestDispatcher dispatcher = request.getRequestDispatcher("register/register.jsp");
        dispatcher.forward(request, response);
    }
}

5. View Layer - register.jsp

header.jsp

Let's create header.jsp file and keep all the common header code in it. Include this file in respect to JSP pages.
<header>
 <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-md navbar-dark"
  style="background-color: tomato">
  <div>
   <a href="https://www.javaguides.net" class="navbar-brand"> Todo App</a>
  </div>

  <ul class="navbar-nav navbar-collapse justify-content-end">
   <li><a href="<%= request.getContextPath() %>/login" class="nav-link">Login</a></li>
   <li><a href="<%= request.getContextPath() %>/register" class="nav-link">Signup</a></li>
  </ul>
 </nav>
</header>

footer.jsp

Let's create a common footer.jsp file for all JSP pages. Include this file in respect JSP pages.
<style>
.footer {
    position: fixed;
    bottom: 0;
    width:100%;
    height: 40px;
    background-color: tomato;
}

</style>

<footer class="footer font-small black">
    <!-- Copyright -->
  <div class="footer-copyright text-center py-3" style="color: white">© 2019 Copyright:
        <a href="https://www.javaguides.net/" > <strong> Java Guides </strong></a>
      </div>
</footer>
<!-- Footer -->

register.jsp

Let's design user registration HTML form with the following fields:
  • firstName
  • lastName
  • username
  • password
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"
 pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%>
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>

    <head>
        <meta charset="ISO-8859-1">
        <title>Insert title here</title>

        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.3.1/css/bootstrap.min.css" integrity="sha384-ggOyR0iXCbMQv3Xipma34MD+dH/1fQ784/j6cY/iJTQUOhcWr7x9JvoRxT2MZw1T" crossorigin="anonymous">
    </head>

    </head>

    <body>
        <jsp:include page="../common/header.jsp"></jsp:include>
        <div class="container">

            <h2>User Register Form</h2>
            <div class="col-md-6 col-md-offset-3">
                <div class="alert alert-success center" role="alert">
                    <p>${NOTIFICATION}</p>
                </div>

                <form action="<%=request.getContextPath()%>/register" method="post">

                    <div class="form-group">
                        <label for="uname">First Name:</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="uname" placeholder="First Name" name="firstName" required>
                    </div>

                    <div class="form-group">
                        <label for="uname">Last Name:</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="uname" placeholder="last Name" name="lastName" required>
                    </div>

                    <div class="form-group">
                        <label for="uname">User Name:</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="username" placeholder="User Name" name="username" required>
                    </div>

                    <div class="form-group">
                        <label for="uname">Password:</label> <input type="password" class="form-control" id="password" placeholder="Password" name="password" required>
                    </div>

                    <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>

                </form>
            </div>
        </div>
        <jsp:include page="../common/footer.jsp"></jsp:include>
    </body>

    </html>

2. Login Module

1. Create a JavaBean - LoginBean.java

Let's create a LoginBean class which we will use in JSP action tags.
package net.javaguides.todoapp.model;

import java.io.Serializable;

public class LoginBean implements Serializable {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1 L;
    private String username;
    private String password;

    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }

    public void setUsername(String username) {
        this.username = username;
    }

    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }

    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;
    }
}

2. DAO Layer - LoginDao.java

Let's create a LoginDao class which contains JDBC code validate login username and password with users table. Add the following code to a LoginDao class:
package net.javaguides.todoapp.dao;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.PreparedStatement;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;

import net.javaguides.todoapp.model.LoginBean;
import net.javaguides.todoapp.utils.JDBCUtils;

public class LoginDao {

    public boolean validate(LoginBean loginBean) throws ClassNotFoundException {
        boolean status = false;

        Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.Driver");

        try (Connection connection = JDBCUtils.getConnection();
            // Step 2:Create a statement using connection object
            PreparedStatement preparedStatement = connection
            .prepareStatement("select * from users where username = ? and password = ? ")) {
            preparedStatement.setString(1, loginBean.getUsername());
            preparedStatement.setString(2, loginBean.getPassword());

            System.out.println(preparedStatement);
            ResultSet rs = preparedStatement.executeQuery();
            status = rs.next();

        } catch (SQLException e) {
            // process sql exception
            JDBCUtils.printSQLException(e);
        }
        return status;
    }
}

3. Controller Layer - LoginController.java

Let's create LoginController to process HTTP request parameters and redirect to the appropriate JSP page based on the login status. If login successfully validated with the database then redirect to "todo/todo-list.jsp" page otherwise redirect to login.jsp page.
package net.javaguides.todoapp.web;

import java.io.IOException;

import javax.servlet.RequestDispatcher;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpSession;

import net.javaguides.todoapp.dao.LoginDao;
import net.javaguides.todoapp.model.LoginBean;

/**
 * @email Ramesh Fadatare
 */

@WebServlet("/login")
public class LoginController extends HttpServlet {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1 L;
    private LoginDao loginDao;

    public void init() {
        loginDao = new LoginDao();
    }

    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws ServletException, IOException {
        response.sendRedirect("login/login.jsp");
    }

    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws ServletException, IOException {
        authenticate(request, response);
    }

    private void authenticate(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException, ServletException {
        String username = request.getParameter("username");
        String password = request.getParameter("password");
        LoginBean loginBean = new LoginBean();
        loginBean.setUsername(username);
        loginBean.setPassword(password);

        try {
            if (loginDao.validate(loginBean)) {
                RequestDispatcher dispatcher = request.getRequestDispatcher("todo/todo-list.jsp");
                dispatcher.forward(request, response);
            } else {
                HttpSession session = request.getSession();
                // session.setAttribute("user", username);
                // response.sendRedirect("login.jsp");
            }
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

    }
}

4. View Layer - login.jsp

Let's design login HTML form with following fields:
  • username
  • password
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"
 pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%>
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>

    <head>
        <meta charset="ISO-8859-1">
        <title>Insert title here</title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.3.1/css/bootstrap.min.css" integrity="sha384-ggOyR0iXCbMQv3Xipma34MD+dH/1fQ784/j6cY/iJTQUOhcWr7x9JvoRxT2MZw1T" crossorigin="anonymous">
    </head>

    <body>

        <jsp:include page="../common/header.jsp"></jsp:include>
        <div class="container col-md-8 col-md-offset-3" style="overflow: auto">
            <h1>Login Form</h1>
            <form action="<%=request.getContextPath()%>/login" method="post">

                <div class="form-group">
                    <label for="uname">User Name:</label> <input type="text" class="form-control" id="username" placeholder="User Name" name="username" required>
                </div>

                <div class="form-group">
                    <label for="uname">Password:</label> <input type="password" class="form-control" id="password" placeholder="Password" name="password" required>
                </div>


                <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
            </form>
        </div>
        <jsp:include page="../common/footer.jsp"></jsp:include>
    </body>

    </html>

3. CRUD Operations

1. Model Layer - Todo.java

This is a model class represents a Todo entity:
package net.javaguides.todoapp.model;

import java.time.LocalDate;


/**
 * Todo.java
 * This is a model class represents a Todo entity
 * @author Ramesh Fadatare
 *
 */
public class Todo {

    private Long id;
    private String title;
    private String username;
    private String description;
    private LocalDate targetDate;
    private boolean status;

    protected Todo() {

    }

    public Todo(long id, String title, String username, String description, LocalDate targetDate, boolean isDone) {
        super();
        this.id = id;
        this.title = title;
        this.username = username;
        this.description = description;
        this.targetDate = targetDate;
        this.status = isDone;
    }

    public Todo(String title, String username, String description, LocalDate targetDate, boolean isDone) {
        super();
        this.title = title;
        this.username = username;
        this.description = description;
        this.targetDate = targetDate;
        this.status = isDone;
    }

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getTitle() {
        return title;
    }

    public void setTitle(String title) {
        this.title = title;
    }

    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }

    public void setUsername(String username) {
        this.username = username;
    }

    public String getDescription() {
        return description;
    }

    public void setDescription(String description) {
        this.description = description;
    }

    public LocalDate getTargetDate() {
        return targetDate;
    }

    public void setTargetDate(LocalDate targetDate) {
        this.targetDate = targetDate;
    }

    public boolean getStatus() {
        return status;
    }

    public void setStatus(boolean status) {
        this.status = status;
    }

    @Override
    public int hashCode() {
        final int prime = 31;
        int result = 1;
        result = prime * result + (int)(id ^ (id >>> 32));
        return result;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
        if (this == obj)
            return true;
        if (obj == null)
            return false;
        if (getClass() != obj.getClass())
            return false;
        Todo other = (Todo) obj;
        if (id != other.id)
            return false;
        return true;
    }
}

DAO Layer - TodoDao.java and TodoDaoImpl.java

TodoDao.java

Let's create a TodoDao interface with the following methods:
package net.javaguides.todoapp.dao;

import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.util.List;

import net.javaguides.todoapp.model.Todo;

public interface TodoDao {

 void insertTodo(Todo todo) throws SQLException;

 Todo selectTodo(long todoId);

 List<Todo> selectAllTodos();

 boolean deleteTodo(int id) throws SQLException;

 boolean updateTodo(Todo todo) throws SQLException;

}

TodoDaoImpl.java

This DAO class provides CRUD database operations for the table todos in the database.
package net.javaguides.todoapp.dao;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.PreparedStatement;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import net.javaguides.todoapp.model.Todo;
import net.javaguides.todoapp.utils.JDBCUtils;

/**
 * This DAO class provides CRUD database operations for the table todos in the
 * database.
 * 
 * @author Ramesh Fadatare
 *
 */

public class TodoDaoImpl implements TodoDao {

    private static final String INSERT_TODOS_SQL = "INSERT INTO todos" +
        "  (title, username, description, target_date,  is_done) VALUES " + " (?, ?, ?, ?, ?);";

    private static final String SELECT_TODO_BY_ID = "select id,title,username,description,target_date,is_done from todos where id =?";
    private static final String SELECT_ALL_TODOS = "select * from todos";
    private static final String DELETE_TODO_BY_ID = "delete from todos where id = ?;";
    private static final String UPDATE_TODO = "update todos set title = ?, username= ?, description =?, target_date =?, is_done = ? where id = ?;";

    public TodoDaoImpl() {}

    @Override
    public void insertTodo(Todo todo) throws SQLException {
        System.out.println(INSERT_TODOS_SQL);
        // try-with-resource statement will auto close the connection.
        try (Connection connection = JDBCUtils.getConnection(); PreparedStatement preparedStatement = connection.prepareStatement(INSERT_TODOS_SQL)) {
            preparedStatement.setString(1, todo.getTitle());
            preparedStatement.setString(2, todo.getUsername());
            preparedStatement.setString(3, todo.getDescription());
            preparedStatement.setDate(4, JDBCUtils.getSQLDate(todo.getTargetDate()));
            preparedStatement.setBoolean(5, todo.getStatus());
            System.out.println(preparedStatement);
            preparedStatement.executeUpdate();
        } catch (SQLException exception) {
            JDBCUtils.printSQLException(exception);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public Todo selectTodo(long todoId) {
        Todo todo = null;
        // Step 1: Establishing a Connection
        try (Connection connection = JDBCUtils.getConnection();
            // Step 2:Create a statement using connection object
            PreparedStatement preparedStatement = connection.prepareStatement(SELECT_TODO_BY_ID);) {
            preparedStatement.setLong(1, todoId);
            System.out.println(preparedStatement);
            // Step 3: Execute the query or update query
            ResultSet rs = preparedStatement.executeQuery();

            // Step 4: Process the ResultSet object.
            while (rs.next()) {
                long id = rs.getLong("id");
                String title = rs.getString("title");
                String username = rs.getString("username");
                String description = rs.getString("description");
                LocalDate targetDate = rs.getDate("target_date").toLocalDate();
                boolean isDone = rs.getBoolean("is_done");
                todo = new Todo(id, title, username, description, targetDate, isDone);
            }
        } catch (SQLException exception) {
            JDBCUtils.printSQLException(exception);
        }
        return todo;
    }

    @Override
    public List < Todo > selectAllTodos() {

        // using try-with-resources to avoid closing resources (boiler plate code)
        List < Todo > todos = new ArrayList < > ();

        // Step 1: Establishing a Connection
        try (Connection connection = JDBCUtils.getConnection();

            // Step 2:Create a statement using connection object
            PreparedStatement preparedStatement = connection.prepareStatement(SELECT_ALL_TODOS);) {
            System.out.println(preparedStatement);
            // Step 3: Execute the query or update query
            ResultSet rs = preparedStatement.executeQuery();

            // Step 4: Process the ResultSet object.
            while (rs.next()) {
                long id = rs.getLong("id");
                String title = rs.getString("title");
                String username = rs.getString("username");
                String description = rs.getString("description");
                LocalDate targetDate = rs.getDate("target_date").toLocalDate();
                boolean isDone = rs.getBoolean("is_done");
                todos.add(new Todo(id, title, username, description, targetDate, isDone));
            }
        } catch (SQLException exception) {
            JDBCUtils.printSQLException(exception);
        }
        return todos;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean deleteTodo(int id) throws SQLException {
        boolean rowDeleted;
        try (Connection connection = JDBCUtils.getConnection(); PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement(DELETE_TODO_BY_ID);) {
            statement.setInt(1, id);
            rowDeleted = statement.executeUpdate() > 0;
        }
        return rowDeleted;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean updateTodo(Todo todo) throws SQLException {
        boolean rowUpdated;
        try (Connection connection = JDBCUtils.getConnection(); PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement(UPDATE_TODO);) {
            statement.setString(1, todo.getTitle());
            statement.setString(2, todo.getUsername());
            statement.setString(3, todo.getDescription());
            statement.setDate(4, JDBCUtils.getSQLDate(todo.getTargetDate()));
            statement.setBoolean(5, todo.getStatus());
            statement.setLong(6, todo.getId());
            rowUpdated = statement.executeUpdate() > 0;
        }
        return rowUpdated;
    }
}

3. Controller Layer - TodoController

This servlet acts as a page controller for the application, handling all requests from the todo. This TodoController class process HTTP request parameters and redirect to the appropriate JSP page after request data is stored in the database:
package net.javaguides.todoapp.web;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.util.List;

import javax.servlet.RequestDispatcher;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import net.javaguides.todoapp.dao.TodoDao;
import net.javaguides.todoapp.dao.TodoDaoImpl;
import net.javaguides.todoapp.model.Todo;

/**
 * ControllerServlet.java This servlet acts as a page controller for the
 * application, handling all requests from the todo.
 * 
 * @email Ramesh Fadatare
 */

@WebServlet("/")
public class TodoController extends HttpServlet {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1 L;
    private TodoDao todoDAO;

    public void init() {
        todoDAO = new TodoDaoImpl();
    }

    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws ServletException, IOException {
        doGet(request, response);
    }

    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws ServletException, IOException {
        String action = request.getServletPath();

        try {
            switch (action) {
                case "/new":
                    showNewForm(request, response);
                    break;
                case "/insert":
                    insertTodo(request, response);
                    break;
                case "/delete":
                    deleteTodo(request, response);
                    break;
                case "/edit":
                    showEditForm(request, response);
                    break;
                case "/update":
                    updateTodo(request, response);
                    break;
                case "/list":
                    listTodo(request, response);
                    break;
                default:
                    RequestDispatcher dispatcher = request.getRequestDispatcher("login/login.jsp");
                    dispatcher.forward(request, response);
                    break;
            }
        } catch (SQLException ex) {
            throw new ServletException(ex);
        }
    }

    private void listTodo(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws SQLException, IOException, ServletException {
        List < Todo > listTodo = todoDAO.selectAllTodos();
        request.setAttribute("listTodo", listTodo);
        RequestDispatcher dispatcher = request.getRequestDispatcher("todo/todo-list.jsp");
        dispatcher.forward(request, response);
    }

    private void showNewForm(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws ServletException, IOException {
        RequestDispatcher dispatcher = request.getRequestDispatcher("todo/todo-form.jsp");
        dispatcher.forward(request, response);
    }

    private void showEditForm(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
    throws SQLException, ServletException, IOException {
        int id = Integer.parseInt(request.getParameter("id"));
        Todo existingTodo = todoDAO.selectTodo(id);
        RequestDispatcher dispatcher = request.getRequestDispatcher("todo/todo-form.jsp");
        request.setAttribute("todo", existingTodo);
        dispatcher.forward(request, response);

    }

    private void insertTodo(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws SQLException, IOException {

        String title = request.getParameter("title");
        String username = request.getParameter("username");
        String description = request.getParameter("description");

        /*DateTimeFormatter df = DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern("yyyy-mm-dd");
        LocalDate targetDate = LocalDate.parse(request.getParameter("targetDate"),df);*/

        boolean isDone = Boolean.valueOf(request.getParameter("isDone"));
        Todo newTodo = new Todo(title, username, description, LocalDate.now(), isDone);
        todoDAO.insertTodo(newTodo);
        response.sendRedirect("list");
    }

    private void updateTodo(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws SQLException, IOException {
        int id = Integer.parseInt(request.getParameter("id"));

        String title = request.getParameter("title");
        String username = request.getParameter("username");
        String description = request.getParameter("description");
        //DateTimeFormatter df = DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern("yyyy-mm-dd");
        LocalDate targetDate = LocalDate.parse(request.getParameter("targetDate"));

        boolean isDone = Boolean.valueOf(request.getParameter("isDone"));
        Todo updateTodo = new Todo(id, title, username, description, targetDate, isDone);

        todoDAO.updateTodo(updateTodo);

        response.sendRedirect("list");
    }

    private void deleteTodo(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws SQLException, IOException {
        int id = Integer.parseInt(request.getParameter("id"));
        todoDAO.deleteTodo(id);
        response.sendRedirect("list");
    }
}

4. View Layer - todo-form.jsp and todo-list.jsp

todo-form.jsp

Let' create a "todo-form.jsp" page to add and edit a todo. Let's create a todo-form.jsp file and add the following code to it.
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
 pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core" prefix="c"%>
<html>
<head>
<title>User Management Application</title>

<link rel="stylesheet"
 href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.3.1/css/bootstrap.min.css"
 integrity="sha384-ggOyR0iXCbMQv3Xipma34MD+dH/1fQ784/j6cY/iJTQUOhcWr7x9JvoRxT2MZw1T"
 crossorigin="anonymous">

</head>

</head>
<body>
 <header>
  <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-md navbar-dark"
   style="background-color: tomato">
   <div>
    <a href="https://www.javaguides.net" class="navbar-brand"> Todo
     App</a>
   </div>

   <ul class="navbar-nav">
    <li><a href="<%=request.getContextPath()%>/list"
     class="nav-link">Todos</a></li>
   </ul>

   <ul class="navbar-nav navbar-collapse justify-content-end">
    <li><a href="<%=request.getContextPath()%>/logout"
     class="nav-link">Logout</a></li>
   </ul>
  </nav>
 </header>
 <div class="container col-md-5">
  <div class="card">
   <div class="card-body">
    <c:if test="${todo != null}">
     <form action="update" method="post">
    </c:if>
    <c:if test="${todo == null}">
     <form action="insert" method="post">
    </c:if>

    <caption>
     <h2>
      <c:if test="${todo != null}">
               Edit Todo
              </c:if>
      <c:if test="${todo == null}">
               Add New Todo
              </c:if>
     </h2>
    </caption>

    <c:if test="${todo != null}">
     <input type="hidden" name="id" value="<c:out value='${todo.id}' />" />
    </c:if>

    <fieldset class="form-group">
     <label>Todo Title</label> <input type="text"
      value="<c:out value='${todo.title}' />" class="form-control"
      name="title" required="required" minlength="5">
    </fieldset>

    <fieldset class="form-group">
     <label>Todo Decription</label> <input type="text"
      value="<c:out value='${todo.description}' />" class="form-control"
      name="description" minlength="5">
    </fieldset>

    <fieldset class="form-group">
     <label>Todo Status</label> <select class="form-control"
      name="isDone">
      <option value="false">In Progress</option>
      <option value="true">Complete</option>
     </select>
    </fieldset>

    <fieldset class="form-group">
     <label>Todo Target Date</label> <input type="date"
      value="<c:out value='${todo.targetDate}' />" class="form-control"
      name="targetDate" required="required">
    </fieldset>

    <button type="submit" class="btn btn-success">Save</button>
    </form>
   </div>
  </div>
 </div>

 <jsp:include page="../common/footer.jsp"></jsp:include>
</body>
</html>

todo-list.jsp

This page list out all the todos. Let's create a "todo-list.jsp" file and add the following code to it:
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
 pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core" prefix="c"%>
<html>
<head>
<title>User Management Application</title>

<link rel="stylesheet"
 href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.3.1/css/bootstrap.min.css"
 integrity="sha384-ggOyR0iXCbMQv3Xipma34MD+dH/1fQ784/j6cY/iJTQUOhcWr7x9JvoRxT2MZw1T"
 crossorigin="anonymous">
</head>

</head>
<body>
 <header>
  <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-md navbar-dark"
   style="background-color: tomato">
   <div>
    <a href="https://www.javaguides.net" class="navbar-brand"> Todo
     App</a>
   </div>

   <ul class="navbar-nav">
    <li><a href="<%=request.getContextPath()%>/list"
     class="nav-link">Todos</a></li>
   </ul>

   <ul class="navbar-nav navbar-collapse justify-content-end">
    <li><a href="<%=request.getContextPath()%>/logout"
     class="nav-link">Logout</a></li>
   </ul>
  </nav>
 </header>

 <div class="row">
  <!-- <div class="alert alert-success" *ngIf='message'>{{message}}</div> -->

  <div class="container">
   <h3 class="text-center">List of Todos</h3>
   <hr>
   <div class="container text-left">

    <a href="<%=request.getContextPath()%>/new"
     class="btn btn-success">Add Todo</a>
   </div>
   <br>
   <table class="table table-bordered">
    <thead>
     <tr>
      <th>Title</th>
      <th>Target Date</th>
      <th>Todo Status</th>
      <th>Actions</th>
     </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
     <!--   for (Todo todo: todos) {  -->
     <c:forEach var="todo" items="${listTodo}">

      <tr>
       <td><c:out value="${todo.title}" /></td>
       <td><c:out value="${todo.targetDate}" /></td>
       <td><c:out value="${todo.status}" /></td>

       <td><a href="edit?id=<c:out value='${todo.id}' />">Edit</a>
        &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a
        href="delete?id=<c:out value='${todo.id}' />">Delete</a></td>

       <!--  <td><button (click)="updateTodo(todo.id)" class="btn btn-success">Update</button>
                 <button (click)="deleteTodo(todo.id)" class="btn btn-warning">Delete</button></td> -->
      </tr>
     </c:forEach>
     <!-- } -->
    </tbody>

   </table>
  </div>
 </div>

 <jsp:include page="../common/footer.jsp"></jsp:include>
</body>
</html>

Creating Error JSP page

Here’s the code of the Error.jsp page which simply shows the exception message:
<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
    pageEncoding="UTF-8" isErrorPage="true" %>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" 
 "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<title>Error</title>
</head>
<body>
 <center>
  <h1>Error</h1>
  <h2><%=exception.getMessage() %><br/> </h2>
 </center> 
</body>
</html>
Configure the above error page in the web.xml file as:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
 xmlns="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee"
 xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee 
  http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_1.xsd"
 id="WebApp_ID" version="3.1">
 <display-name>Todo Management Web Application</display-name>

 <error-page>
  <exception-type>java.lang.Exception</exception-type>
  <location>/Error.jsp</location>
 </error-page>
</web-app>

4. Deployment

Let's first configure the tomcat server in your eclipse IDE.
Refer to the below screenshot to run the Todo app on the tomcat server in Eclipse IDE:

5. Demo


Below are the screenshots that show the UI of our Todo App:

User Registration Page


Login Page

Add New Todo Page


Update Todo Page



List Todo Page

Delete Todo Page

6. Download Source Code from GitHub

You can download source code from my GitHub repository at https://github.com/RameshMF/todo-application-jsp-servlet-jdbc-mysql.

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