Spring Boot MariaDB CRUD Example Tutorial

In this tutorial, we will discuss how to integrate MariaDB in Spring boot applications. We will develop CRUD Rest web services using Spring boot with MariaDB and we will test it using Postman Client.

MariaDB Database Overview

MariaDB is a popular fork of MySQL created by MySQL's original developers. It grew out of concerns related to MySQL's acquisition by Oracle. It offers support for both small data processing tasks and enterprise needs. It aims to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL requiring only a simple uninstall of MySQL and an install of MariaDB. MariaDB offers the same features of MySQL and much more.

Key Features of MariaDB

The important features of MariaDB are −
  • All of MariaDB is under GPL, LGPL, or BSD.
  • MariaDB includes a wide selection of storage engines, including high-performance storage engines, for working with other RDBMS data sources.
  • MariaDB uses a standard and popular querying language.
  • MariaDB runs on a number of operating systems and supports a wide variety of programming languages.
  • MariaDB offers support for PHP, one of the most popular web development languages.
  • MariaDB offers Galera cluster technology.
  • MariaDB also offers many operations and commands unavailable in MySQL and eliminates/replaces features impacting performance negatively.

MariaDB Configuration

For this tutorial, I’m using MariaDB installed locally on my laptop. You’ll need to have a database defined for your use. Use the following command to log into MariaDB:
mysql -u root
Once you are logged in, use the following command to create a database.
create database springboot_demo;

MariaDB Dependencies

First, we need to add the MariaDB database driver, mariadb-java-client, as a dependency to our project. Here is the complete maven pom.xml file:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project
    xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
 xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>net.guides.springboot2</groupId>
    <artifactId>springboot2-jpa-crud-example</artifactId>
    <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>
    <name>springboot2-jpa-crud-example</name>
    <description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>
    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.0.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath />
        <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
        </dependency>
       <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.mariadb.jdbc/mariadb-java-client -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.mariadb.jdbc</groupId>
            <artifactId>mariadb-java-client</artifactId>
            <version>2.5.2</version>
       </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
</project>

Spring Boot Properties

The following properties are required to configure MariaDB with Spring Boot. You can see these are pretty standard Java data source properties.
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mariadb://localhost:3306/springboot_demo
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=root
spring.datasource.driver-class-name=org.mariadb.jdbc.Driver
spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto=create-drop
As we are using JPA, we need to configure Hibernate for MariaDB too.

Spring Boot MariaDB CRUD Example

In our example application, we will perform CRUD operations on an Employee entity. We develop CRUD Rest web services using Spring boot and we will test it using Postman Client.

Create JPA Entity - Employee.java

package net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.model;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;

@Entity
@Table(name = "employees")
public class Employee {

    private long id;
    private String firstName;
    private String lastName;
    private String emailId;

    public Employee() {

    }

    public Employee(String firstName, String lastName, String emailId) {
        this.firstName = firstName;
        this.lastName = lastName;
        this.emailId = emailId;
    }

    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO)
    public long getId() {
        return id;
    }
    public void setId(long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    @Column(name = "first_name", nullable = false)
    public String getFirstName() {
        return firstName;
    }
    public void setFirstName(String firstName) {
        this.firstName = firstName;
    }

    @Column(name = "last_name", nullable = false)
    public String getLastName() {
        return lastName;
    }
    public void setLastName(String lastName) {
        this.lastName = lastName;
    }

    @Column(name = "email_address", nullable = false)
    public String getEmailId() {
        return emailId;
    }
    public void setEmailId(String emailId) {
        this.emailId = emailId;
    }
}

Create a Spring Data Repository - EmployeeRepository.java

package net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.repository;

import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

import net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.model.Employee;

@Repository
public interface EmployeeRepository extends JpaRepository<Employee, Long>{

}

9. Create Spring Rest Controller - EmployeeController.java

package net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.controller;

import java.util.HashMap;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import javax.validation.Valid;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.CrossOrigin;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.DeleteMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PutMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.exception.ResourceNotFoundException;
import net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.model.Employee;
import net.guides.springboot2.springboot2jpacrudexample.repository.EmployeeRepository;

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/api/v1")
public class EmployeeController {
    @Autowired
    private EmployeeRepository employeeRepository;

    @GetMapping("/employees")
    public List < Employee > getAllEmployees() {
        return employeeRepository.findAll();
    }

    @GetMapping("/employees/{id}")
    public ResponseEntity < Employee > getEmployeeById(@PathVariable(value = "id") Long employeeId)
    throws ResourceNotFoundException {
        Employee employee = employeeRepository.findById(employeeId)
            .orElseThrow(() -> new ResourceNotFoundException("Employee not found for this id :: " + employeeId));
        return ResponseEntity.ok().body(employee);
    }

    @PostMapping("/employees")
    public Employee createEmployee(@Valid @RequestBody Employee employee) {
        return employeeRepository.save(employee);
    }

    @PutMapping("/employees/{id}")
    public ResponseEntity < Employee > updateEmployee(@PathVariable(value = "id") Long employeeId,
        @Valid @RequestBody Employee employeeDetails) throws ResourceNotFoundException {
        Employee employee = employeeRepository.findById(employeeId)
            .orElseThrow(() -> new ResourceNotFoundException("Employee not found for this id :: " + employeeId));

        employee.setEmailId(employeeDetails.getEmailId());
        employee.setLastName(employeeDetails.getLastName());
        employee.setFirstName(employeeDetails.getFirstName());
        final Employee updatedEmployee = employeeRepository.save(employee);
        return ResponseEntity.ok(updatedEmployee);
    }

    @DeleteMapping("/employees/{id}")
    public Map < String, Boolean > deleteEmployee(@PathVariable(value = "id") Long employeeId)
    throws ResourceNotFoundException {
        Employee employee = employeeRepository.findById(employeeId)
            .orElseThrow(() -> new ResourceNotFoundException("Employee not found for this id :: " + employeeId));

        employeeRepository.delete(employee);
        Map < String, Boolean > response = new HashMap < > ();
        response.put("deleted", Boolean.TRUE);
        return response;
    }
}

Exception(Error) Handling for RESTful Services

Spring Boot provides a good default implementation for exception handling for RESTful Services. Let’s quickly look at the default Exception Handling features provided by Spring Boot.

Resource Not Present

Heres what happens when you fire a request to not resource found: http://localhost:8080/some-dummy-url
{
  "timestamp": 1512713804164,
  "status": 404,
  "error": "Not Found",
  "message": "No message available",
  "path": "/some-dummy-url"
}
That's a cool error response. It contains all the details that are typically needed.

What happens when we throw an Exception?

Let’s see what Spring Boot does when an exception is thrown from a Resource. we can specify the Response Status for a specific exception along with the definition of the Exception of ‘@ResponseStatus’ annotation.
Lets create a ResourceNotFoundException.java class.
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseStatus;

@ResponseStatus(value = HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND)
public class ResourceNotFoundException extends Exception{

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

    public ResourceNotFoundException(String message){
        super(message);
    }
}

Customizing Error Response Structure

The default error response provided by Spring Boot contains all the details that are typically needed.
However, you might want to create a framework independent response structure for your organization. In that case, you can define a specific error response structure.
Let’s define a simple error response bean.
import java.util.Date;

public class ErrorDetails {
    private Date timestamp;
    private String message;
    private String details;

    public ErrorDetails(Date timestamp, String message, String details) {
         super();
         this.timestamp = timestamp;
         this.message = message;
         this.details = details;
    }

    public Date getTimestamp() {
         return timestamp;
    }

    public String getMessage() {
         return message;
    }

    public String getDetails() {
         return details;
    }
}
To use ErrorDetails to return the error response, let’s create a GlobalExceptionHandler class annotated with @ControllerAdvice annotation. This class handles exception specific and global exceptions in a single place.
import java.util.Date;

import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ExceptionHandler;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.WebRequest;

@ControllerAdvice
public class GlobalExceptionHandler {
    @ExceptionHandler(ResourceNotFoundException.class)
    public ResponseEntity<?> resourceNotFoundException(ResourceNotFoundException ex, WebRequest request) {
         ErrorDetails errorDetails = new ErrorDetails(new Date(), ex.getMessage(), request.getDescription(false));
         return new ResponseEntity<>(errorDetails, HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler(Exception.class)
    public ResponseEntity<?> globleExcpetionHandler(Exception ex, WebRequest request) {
        ErrorDetails errorDetails = new ErrorDetails(new Date(), ex.getMessage(), request.getDescription(false));
        return new ResponseEntity<>(errorDetails, HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
    }
}

Running Application

This spring boot application has an entry point Java class called Application.java with the public static void main(String[] args) method, which you can run to start the application.
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;

import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
    }
}
@SpringBootApplication is a convenience annotation that adds all of the following:
  • @Configuration tags the class as a source of bean definitions for the application context.
  • @EnableAutoConfiguration tells Spring Boot to start adding beans based on classpath settings, other beans, and various property settings.
  • Normally you would add @EnableWebMvc for a Spring MVC app, but Spring Boot adds it automatically when it sees spring-webmvc on the classpath. This flags the application as a web application and activates key behaviors such as setting up a DispatcherServlet.
  • @ComponentScan tells Spring to look for other components, configurations, and services in the hello package, allowing it to find the controllers.
The main() method uses Spring Boot’s SpringApplication.run() method to launch an application.

Integration Testing for REST APIs


There is a separate beautiful article for integration testing for REST APIs on:

>> Spring Boot 2 REST APIs Integration Testing

Testing REST APIs via Postman Client

1. Create Employee REST API


HTTP Method: POST 
Note that request and response JSON in the above diagram, the response contains database auto generated id.

2. Get Employee by ID REST API

HTTP Method: GET 

3. Get all Employees REST API

HTTP Method: GET 

4. Update Employee REST API

HTTP Method: GET 

5. Delete Employee REST API

HTTP Method: DELETE 


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