Hibernate XML Configuration Example with Maven + Eclipse + MySQL Database

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In this article, we will show you how to create a Hibernate Application in Eclipse using hibernate.cfg.xml XML configuration to connect the MySQL database.

This tutorial is upgraded to use Hibernate 6 and Java 17.
In this article, we will define a mapping between the Student Java class and database table using Hibernate ORM Framework:

Technologies and tools used

  • Hibernate 6.1.7.Final
  • IDE - Eclipse IDE
  • Maven 3.5.3
  • Java 17
  • MySQL - 8.0.32
Let's start developing step by step Hibernate application using Maven as a project management and build tool.

Development Steps

  1. Create a Simple Maven Project
  2. Project Directory Structure
  3. Add jar Dependencies to pom.xml
  4. Creating the JPA Entity Class(Persistent class)
  5. Create a Hibernate configuration file - hibernate.cfg.xml
  6. Create a Hibernate utility class
  7. Create the Main class and Run an Application

1. Create a Simple Maven Project

Use the How to Create a Simple Maven Project in Eclipse article to create a simple Maven project in Eclipse IDE.

2. Project Directory Structure

The project directory structure for your reference -

3. Add jar Dependencies to pom.xml

 xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/mysql/mysql-connector-java -->
        <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.hibernate/hibernate-core -->

4. Creating the JPA Entity Class(Persistent class)

Let's create a Student persistent class that is mapped to a database "student" table.
A simple persistent class should follow some rules:
  • A no-arg constructor: It is recommended that you have a default constructor at least package visibility so that hibernate can create the instance of the Persistent class by the newInstance() method.
  • Provide an identifier property: It is better to assign an attribute as id. This attribute behaves as a primary key in a database.
  • Declare getter and setter methods: The Hibernate recognizes the method by getter and setter method names by default.
  • Prefer non-final class: Hibernate uses the concept of proxies, which depends on the persistent class. The application programmer will not be able to use proxies for lazy association fetching.
Create a Student entity class under net.javaguides.hibernate.entity package as follows.
package net.javaguides.hibernate.entity;

import jakarta.persistence.*;

@Table(name = "student")
public class Student {

    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    @Column(name = "id")
    private int id;

    @Column(name = "first_name")
    private String firstName;

    @Column(name = "last_name")
    private String lastName;

    @Column(name = "email")
    private String email;

    public Student() {


    public Student(String firstName, String lastName, String email) {
        this.firstName = firstName;
        this.lastName = lastName;
        this.email = email;

    public int getId() {
        return id;

    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;

    public String getFirstName() {
        return firstName;

    public void setFirstName(String firstName) {
        this.firstName = firstName;

    public String getLastName() {
        return lastName;

    public void setLastName(String lastName) {
        this.lastName = lastName;

    public String getEmail() {
        return email;

    public void setEmail(String email) {
        this.email = email;

    public String toString() {
        return "Student [id=" + id + ", firstName=" + firstName + ", lastName=" + lastName + ", email=" + email + "]";

5. Create a Hibernate configuration file - hibernate.cfg.xml

The configuration file contains information about the database and mapping file. Conventionally, its name should be hibernate.cfg.xml.
Let's create an XML file named hibernate.cfg.xml under the resources folder and write the following code in it.
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-configuration PUBLIC
        "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Configuration DTD 3.0//EN"
        <!-- JDBC Database connection settings -->
        <property name="connection.driver_class">com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver</property>
        <property name="connection.url">jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/hibernate_db?useSSL=false</property>
        <property name="connection.username">root</property>
        <property name="connection.password">root</property>
        <!-- JDBC connection pool settings ... using built-in test pool -->
        <property name="connection.pool_size">1</property>
        <!-- Echo the SQL to stdout -->
        <property name="show_sql">true</property>
        <!-- Set the current session context -->
        <property name="current_session_context_class">thread</property>
        <!-- Drop and re-create the database schema on startup -->
        <property name="hbm2ddl.auto">create-drop</property>
        <!-- dbcp connection pool configuration -->
        <property name="hibernate.dbcp.initialSize">5</property>
        <property name="hibernate.dbcp.maxTotal">20</property>
        <property name="hibernate.dbcp.maxIdle">10</property>
        <property name="hibernate.dbcp.minIdle">5</property>
        <property name="hibernate.dbcp.maxWaitMillis">-1</property>
        <mapping class="net.javaguides.hibernate.entity.Student" />
The configuration file contains information about the database and mapping file. Conventionally, its name should be hibernate.cfg.xml.

In Hibernate 6, we don't have to specify the dialect because Hibernate 6 will automatically configure it based on the database JDBC driver that we add to the classpath.

6. Create a Hibernate Utility Class

Create a helper class to bootstrap hibernate SessionFactory. In most Hibernate applications, the SessionFactory should be instantiated once during application initialization. The single instance should then be used by all code in a particular process, and any Session should be created using this single SessionFactory.

The SessionFactory is thread-safe and can be shared; a Session is a single-threaded object. Let's create HibernateUtil class to configure singleton SessionFactory and use it throughout the application.
package net.javaguides.hibernate.util;

import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.boot.Metadata;
import org.hibernate.boot.MetadataSources;
import org.hibernate.boot.registry.StandardServiceRegistry;
import org.hibernate.boot.registry.StandardServiceRegistryBuilder;

public class HibernateUtil {
    private static StandardServiceRegistry registry;
    private static SessionFactory sessionFactory;

    public static SessionFactory getSessionFactory() {
        if (sessionFactory == null) {
            try {
                // Create registry
                registry = new StandardServiceRegistryBuilder().configure().build();

                // Create MetadataSources
                MetadataSources sources = new MetadataSources(registry);

                // Create Metadata
                Metadata metadata = sources.getMetadataBuilder().build();

                // Create SessionFactory
                sessionFactory = metadata.getSessionFactoryBuilder().build();

            } catch (Exception e) {
                if (registry != null) {
        return sessionFactory;

    public static void shutdown() {
        if (registry != null) {

Let's understand the above code:

  1. The registry and sessionFactory variables are declared as private and static, which means they can be accessed from other methods in the class and are shared across all instances of the class.

  2. The getSessionFactory() method is declared as public and static, which means it can be accessed from other classes without creating an instance of the HibernateUtil class.

  3. The method checks if the sessionFactory variable is null. If it is null, it creates a new SessionFactory using Hibernate's Configuration and Metadata APIs.

  4. The StandardServiceRegistryBuilder is used to build a StandardServiceRegistry object, which is used by Hibernate to manage services.

  5. The configure() method is called on the StandardServiceRegistryBuilder to load the hibernate.cfg.xml file and configure Hibernate settings, such as the database driver, URL, username, password, and dialect.

  6. The MetadataSources object is created, which is used to define the sources of metadata that Hibernate will use to create the SessionFactory.

  7. The Metadata object is created by calling getMetadataBuilder() on the MetadataSources object and then calling the build() method.

  8. The SessionFactory is created by calling the build() method on the SessionFactoryBuilder, passing in the Metadata object.

  9. If an exception occurs while creating the sessionFactory, the stack trace is printed to the console, and the StandardServiceRegistry object is destroyed if it was created.

  10. The getSessionFactory() method returns the sessionFactory object.

  11. The shutdown() method is declared as public and static, which means it can be accessed from other classes without creating an instance of the HibernateUtil class.

  12. The method checks if the registry object is not null, and if it is not null, it destroys the registry using the destroy() method of the StandardServiceRegistryBuilder.

7. Create the main App class and Run an Application

Here is the main App class which is used to connect MySQL database and persist Student object in a database table.
package net.javaguides.hibernate;

import java.util.List;

import org.hibernate.Session;
import org.hibernate.Transaction;

import net.javaguides.hibernate.entity.Student;
import net.javaguides.hibernate.util.HibernateUtil;

public class App {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

        Student student = new Student("Ramesh", "Fadatare", "[email protected]");
        Student student1 = new Student("John", "Cena", "[email protected]");
        Transaction transaction = null;
        try (Session session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().openSession()) {
            // start a transaction
            transaction = session.beginTransaction();
            // save the student objects
            // commit transaction
        } catch (Exception e) {
            if (transaction != null) {

        try (Session session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().openSession()) {
            List < Student > students = session.createQuery("from Student", Student.class).list();
            students.forEach(s - > System.out.println(s.getFirstName()));
        } catch (Exception e) {
            if (transaction != null) {
Note that we are using Session.persist() method to save the Student entity object into the database. Next, run Hibernate application using App.main() method.


GitHub Repository

The complete source code of this article is available on my GitHub Repository - https://github.com/RameshMF/Hibernate-ORM-Tutorials


In this article, we have created a step-by-step hibernate application to demonstrate the use of hibernate.cfg.xml configuration to connect the MySQL database.

You can learn more about Hibernate ORM Framework at Hibernate Tutorial