Getting Started with Exception Handling in Java


An exceptionis an event, which occurs during the execution of a program, that disrupts the normal flow of the program's instructions.

How the exception handling works in java

  • When an error occurs within a method, the method creates an object and hands it off to the runtime system. The object, called an exception object, contains information about the error, including its type and the state of the program when the error occurred.
  • Creating an exception object and handing it to the runtime system is called throwing an exception. After a method throws an exception, the runtime system attempts to find something to handle it. The set of possible "somethings" to handle the exception is the ordered list of methods that had been called to get to the method where the error occurred. 



  • The runtime system searches the call stack for a method that contains a block of code that can handle the exception. This block of code is called an exception handler.
  • The search begins with the method in which the error occurred and proceeds through the call stack in the reverse order in which the methods were called. When an appropriate handler is found, the runtime system passes the exception to the handler. An exception handler is considered appropriate if the type of the exception object thrown matches the type that can be handled by the handler.


Call Exception Handler

The Three Kinds of Exceptions

Checked exception

The first kind of exception is the checked exception. These are exceptional conditions that a well-written application should anticipate and recover from.
For example, suppose an application prompts a user for an input file name, then opens the file by passing the name to the constructor for java.io.FileReader. Normally, the user provides the name of an existing, readable file, so the construction of the FileReader object succeeds, and the execution of the application proceeds normally. But sometimes the user supplies the name of a nonexistent file, and the constructor throws java.io.FileNotFoundException. A well-written program will catch this exception and notify the user of the mistake, possibly prompting for a corrected file name. All exceptions are checked exceptions, except for those indicated by Error, RuntimeException, and their subclasses.

Error

The second kind of exception is the error. These are exceptional conditions that are external to the application, and that the application usually cannot anticipate or recover from. For example, suppose that an application successfully opens a file for input, but is unable to read the file because of a hardware or system malfunction. The unsuccessful read will throw java.io.IOError. An application might choose to catch this exception, in order to notify the user of the problem — but it also might make sense for the program to print a stack trace and exit. Errors are not subject to the Catch or Specify Requirement. Errors are those exceptions indicated by Error and its subclasses.

Un-Checked Exception

The third kind of exception is the runtime exception. These are exceptional conditions that are internal to the application, and that the application usually cannot anticipate or recover from. These usually indicate programming bugs, such as logic errors or improper use of an API.
For example, consider the application described previously that passes a file name to the constructor for FileReader. If a logic error causes a null to be passed to the constructor, the constructor will throw NullPointerException. The application can catch this exception, but it probably makes more sense to eliminate the bug that caused the exception to occur. Runtime exceptions are those indicated by RuntimeException and its subclasses.

Catching and Handling Exceptions

The try Block

  • Enclose the code that might throw an exception within a try block
  • If an exception occurs within the try block, that exception is handled by an exception handler associated with it.
  • To associate an exception handler with a try block, you must put a catch block after it.

Nested try block

The try block within a try block is known as nested try block in java.

Why use nested try block?

Sometimes a situation may arise where a part of a block may cause one error and the entire block itself may cause another error. In such cases, exception handlers have to be nested.
package com.mycompany.projectname.corejava.excetion;
public class NestedTryBlock {
 
         public static void main(String args[]) {
                 try {
                          try {
                                   System.out.println(" This gives divide by zero error");
                                   int b = 39 / 0;
                          } catch (ArithmeticException e) {
                                   System.out.println(e);
                          }
 
                          try {
                                   System.out.println(" This gives Array index out of bound exception");
                                   int a[] = new int[5];
                                   a[5] = 4;
                          } catch (ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
                                   System.out.println(e);
                          }
 
                          System.out.println("other statement");
                 } catch (Exception e) {
                          System.out.println("handeled");
                 }
 
                 System.out.println("normal flow..");
         }
}

Catching More Than One Type of Exception with One Exception Handler

In Java SE 7 and later, a single catch block can handle more than one type of exception. This feature can reduce code duplication and lessen the temptation to catch an overly broad exception.
In the catch clause, specify the types of exceptions that block can handle, and separate each exception type with a vertical bar (|):
catch (IOException|SQLException ex) {
    logger.log(ex);
    throw ex;
}

Java finally block

  • Java finally block is a block that is used to execute important code such as closing connection, stream etc.
  • Java finally block is always executed whether an exception is handled or not.
  • Java finally block follows try or catch block.
  • Finally block in java can be used to put "cleanup" code such as closing a file, closing connection etc.
  • For each try block there can be zero or more catch blocks, but only one finally block.
  • The finally block will not be executed if program exits(either by calling System.exit() or by causing a fatal error that causes the process to abort).

The try-with-resources Statement

The try-with-resources statement is a try statement that declares one or more resources. A resource is an object that must be closed after the program is finished with it. The try-with-resources statement ensures that each resource is closed at the end of the statement. Any object that implements java.lang.AutoCloseable, which includes all objects which implement java.io.Closeable, can be used as a resource.
The following example reads the first line from a file. It uses an instance of BufferedReader to read data from the file. BufferedReader is a resource that must be closed after the program is finished with it:
static String readFirstLineFromFile(String path) throws IOException {
    try (BufferedReader br =
                   new BufferedReader(new FileReader(path))) {
        return br.readLine();
    }
}
The class BufferedReader, in Java SE 7 and later, implements the interface java.lang.AutoCloseable. Because the BufferedReader instance is declared in a try-with-resource statement, it will be closed regardless of whether the try statement completes normally or abruptly (as a result of the method BufferedReader.readLine throwing an IOException).
Prior to Java SE 7, you can use a finally block to ensure that a resource is closed regardless of whether the try statement completes normally or abruptly. The following example uses a finally block instead of a try-with-resources statement:
static String readFirstLineFromFileWithFinallyBlock(String path)
                                                     throws IOException {
    BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(path));
    try {
        return br.readLine();
    } finally {
        if (br != null) br.close();
    }
}

ExceptionHandling with MethodOverriding in Java

If the superclass method does not declare an exception: If the superclass method does not declare an exception, subclass overridden method cannot declare the checked exception but it can declare unchecked exception.
If the superclass method declares an exception : If the superclass method declares an exception, subclass overridden method can declare same, subclass exception or no exception but cannot declare parent exception. Rule: If the superclass method does not declare an exception, subclass overridden method cannot declare the checked exception but can declare unchecked exception.
import java.io.*;  
class Parent{  
  void msg(){System.out.println("parent");}  
}  
  
class TestExceptionChild1 extends Parent{  
  void msg()throws ArithmeticException{  
    System.out.println("child");  
  }  
  public static void main(String args[]){  
   Parent p=new TestExceptionChild1();  
   p.msg();  
  }  
}  
If the superclass method declares an exception
Rule: If the superclass method declares an exception, subclass overridden method can declare same, subclass exception or no exception but cannot declare parent exception.
Example in case subclass overridden method declares parent exception
import java.io.*;  
class Parent{  
  void msg()throws ArithmeticException{System.out.println("parent");}  
}  
  
class TestExceptionChild2 extends Parent{  
  void msg()throws Exception{System.out.println("child");}  
  
  public static void main(String args[]){  
   Parent p=new TestExceptionChild2();  
   try{  
   p.msg();  
   }catch(Exception e){}  
  }  
}  
Output: Compile Time Error
The example in case subclass overridden method declares same exception
import java.io.*;  
class Parent{  
  void msg()throws Exception{System.out.println("parent");}  
}  
  
class TestExceptionChild3 extends Parent{  
  void msg()throws Exception{System.out.println("child");}  
  
  public static void main(String args[]){  
   Parent p=new TestExceptionChild3();  
   try{  
   p.msg();  
   }catch(Exception e){}  
  }  
} 
Output: 
child Example in case subclass overridden method declares subclass exception
import java.io.*;  
class Parent{  
  void msg()throws Exception{System.out.println("parent");}  
}  
  
class TestExceptionChild4 extends Parent{  
  void msg()throws ArithmeticException{System.out.println("child");}  
  
  public static void main(String args[]){  
   Parent p=new TestExceptionChild4();  
   try{  
   p.msg();  
   }catch(Exception e){}  
  }  
}  


Free Spring Boot Tutorial | Full In-depth Course | Learn Spring Boot in 10 Hours


Watch this course on YouTube at Spring Boot Tutorial | Fee 10 Hours Full Course

Comments