JDBC Statement - Batch Update Example

In this article, We will discuss JDBC Batch update example in MySQL database. Sometimes we need to run bulk queries of a similar kind for a database, for example, loading data from CSV files to relational database tables. As we know that we have the option to use Statement or PreparedStatement to execute queries. Apart from that JDBC provides Batch Processing feature through which we can execute the bulk of queries in one go for a database.
You can batch both SQL inserts, updates, and deletes. It does not make sense to batch select statements.
In this example, we will use Statement to execute a batch update.

Technologies used

  • JDK - 1.8 or later
  • MySQL - 5.7.12
  • IDE - Eclipse Neon
  • JDBC API - 4.2

Steps to process Update SQL statement with JDBC

  1. Establishing a connection.
  2. Create a statement.
  3. Execute the query.
  4. Using try-with-resources Statements to Automatically Close JDBC Resources
From JDBC 4.0, we don't need to include 'Class.forName()' in our code, to load JDBC driver. When the method 'getConnection' is called, the 'DriverManager' will automatically load the suitable driver among the JDBC drivers that were loaded at initialization and those loaded explicitly using the same class loader as the current application.
Any JDBC 4.0 drivers that are found in your classpath are automatically loaded. (However, you must manually load any drivers prior to JDBC 4.0 with the method Class.forName.)

JDBC Statement Batch Insert Example

The Statement interface provides below two methods to perform batch operations
  1. addBatch(String sql)
  2. executeBatch()

Statement.addBatch(String sql)

Adds the given SQL command to the current list of commands for this Statement object. The commands in this list can be executed as a batch by calling the method executeBatch.

Statement.executeBatch()

Submits a batch of commands to the database for execution and if all commands execute successfully, returns an array of update counts. The int elements of the array that is returned are ordered to correspond to the commands in the batch, which are ordered according to the order in which they were added to the batch.
The below example demonstrates the batch insertion operations using Statement interface:
package com.javaguides.jdbc.batch;

import java.sql.BatchUpdateException;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Statement;
import java.util.Arrays;

/**
 * Update Batch operation using Statement Interface
 * @author Ramesh Fadatare
 *
 */
public class BatchUpdateExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        batchUpdate();
    }

    private static void batchUpdate() {
        try (Connection connection = DriverManager
            .getConnection("jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mysql_database?useSSL=false", "root", "root");
            // Step 2:Create a statement using connection object
            Statement statement = connection.createStatement()) {
            connection.setAutoCommit(false);
            statement.addBatch("update users set name = 'Sam' where id = 1;");
            statement.addBatch("update users set name = 'a' where id = 2;");
            statement.addBatch("update users set name = 'b' where id = 3;");
            statement.addBatch("update users set name = 'c' where id = 4;");
            int[] updateCounts = statement.executeBatch();
            System.out.println(Arrays.toString(updateCounts));
            connection.commit();
        } catch (BatchUpdateException batchUpdateException) {
            printBatchUpdateException(batchUpdateException);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            printSQLException(e);
        }
    }

    public static void printSQLException(SQLException ex) {
        for (Throwable e: ex) {
            if (e instanceof SQLException) {
                e.printStackTrace(System.err);
                System.err.println("SQLState: " + ((SQLException) e).getSQLState());
                System.err.println("Error Code: " + ((SQLException) e).getErrorCode());
                System.err.println("Message: " + e.getMessage());
                Throwable t = ex.getCause();
                while (t != null) {
                    System.out.println("Cause: " + t);
                    t = t.getCause();
                }
            }
        }
    }

    public static void printBatchUpdateException(BatchUpdateException b) {

        System.err.println("----BatchUpdateException----");
        System.err.println("SQLState:  " + b.getSQLState());
        System.err.println("Message:  " + b.getMessage());
        System.err.println("Vendor:  " + b.getErrorCode());
        System.err.print("Update counts:  ");
        int[] updateCounts = b.getUpdateCounts();

        for (int i = 0; i < updateCounts.length; i++) {
            System.err.print(updateCounts[i] + "   ");
        }
    }
}
Output:
[1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

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